This article is part of the supplement: Second Annual International African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium Conference

Open Access Proceedings

Cytochrome P450 1B1 Val432Leu polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women: a case control study

Michael N Okobia125*, Clareann H Bunker1, Seymour J Garte3, Joseph M Zmuda1, Emmanuel R Ezeome6, Stanley NC Anyanwu7, Emmanuel EO Uche8, Usifo Osime5, Joseph Ojukwu6, Lewis H Kuller1, Robert E Ferrell4 and Emanuela Taioli129

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

2 University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

3 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, and Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

4 Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

5 Department of Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

6 Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

7 Department of Surgery, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

8 Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

9 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Downstate School of Public Health, State University of New York, USA

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Infectious Agents and Cancer 2009, 4(Suppl 1):S12  doi:10.1186/1750-9378-4-S1-S12

Published: 10 February 2009

Abstract

Background

Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is active in the metabolism of estrogens to reactive catechols and of different procarcinogens. Several studies have investigated the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of CYP1B1 and breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. A G → C transversion polymorphism in the heme-binding region in codon 432 of the gene results in amino acid change (Val → Leu); the Leu allele display increased catalytic efficiency for 4-hydroxylation of estradiol in some experimental systems.

Methods

In this study, we utilized a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to assess the relationship between this polymorphism and breast cancer risk in a case control study including 250 women with breast cancer and 250 controls from four University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria.

Results

Heterozygosity for the CYP1B1 M1 genotype (CYP1B1 M1 [Val/Leu]) was associated with a significant 59% increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.01–2.58) while homozygosity for the genotype (CYP1B1 M1 [Leu/Leu]) conferred a non-significant 51% increased risk of breast cancer. These risk profiles were modified in subgroup analysis. In premenopausal women, harboring at least one CYP1B1 (Leu) allele conferred a significant two-fold increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.10–3.78). No significant association was observed in postmenopausal women (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.57–2.04).

Conclusion

Our results suggest that the codon 432 polymorphism of the CYP1B1 gene is associated with increased risk of breast cancer and is particularly involved in breast cancer risk in premenopausal women of African descent.