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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Impact of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection on biomolecular markers influencing the pathogenesis of bladder cancer

Kamel Z Hemmaid1, Amira Awadalla2, Essam Elsawy2, Abdel-aziz M Hussein3*, Azza Abdel-aziz4, Ahmed A Shokeir2, Ahmed S El-Hefnawy2 and Hassan Abol-enein2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2 Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

3 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

4 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

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Infectious Agents and Cancer 2013, 8:24  doi:10.1186/1750-9378-8-24

Published: 28 June 2013

Abstract

Objective

The present study was designed to determine the possible impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on the expression of telomerase (TERT), retinoblastoma (RB1), E2F3, TP53, CDKN1A (p21) and fibroblast growth factor receptor- 3 (FGFR3) genes in patients with bladder cancer (BC).

Materials and methods

100 patients with bladder cancer (15 female and 85 male) were divided into 2 groups; Group I: 50 HCV negative subjects (age range 36–79), and Group II: 50 HCV positive subjects (age range 42–80). Expressions of the telomerase, retinoblastoma (Rb), E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 genes were tested by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR in tumour tissues and healthy bladder tissues. Also, telomerase activity was assessed by telomeric repeats amplification protocol (TRAP).

Results

Bladder tumors associated with HCV infection were of high grade and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Expressions of hTERT, Rb, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 as well as telomerase activity were significantly higher in bladder tissues of HCV-infected patients compared with bladder tissues of non infected patients (p<0.05). On the contrary, CDKN1A (p21) expression was significantly lower in bladder tissues of HCV-infected patients compared to bladder tissues of non infected patients (p<0.05).

Conclusion

The expressions of hTERT, Rb, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3 as well as the activity of telomerase were significantly high in malignant bladder tissues associated with HCV infection. On the other hand, CDKN1A (p21) expression was low in bladder tissues of HCV-infected subjects. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between HCV infection and expression of telomerase, E2F3, TP53 and FGFR3. There was a negative correlation between HCV infection and expression of Rb and p21.

Keywords:
HCV; Bladder cancer; Telomerase; Retinoblastoma gene; E2F3; TP53; CDKN1A (p21); FGFR3